terrain, and some even may have made it their
home. With varying degrees of effort, they
managed to adjust to the terrain, climate, and en-
vironment. Your problem is you are not prepared
to live there; you never expected your plane to
crash-land in a jungle or some other remote area.
Remember your goal in a survival situation
ashore is to get back to friendly forces. If you are
isolated in an enemy area, you have the major
problem of avoiding the enemy (evasion). If you
are captured, you have the problem of surviving
the prisoner-of-war (POW) camp.
In a survival situation within enemy territory,
you must focus on evasion of the enemy.
Therefore, you need to know the two methods the
enemy uses to detect your presence:
1. Observation by specially trained and equip-
ped observation teams. The teams may be situated
on high terrain to scan the area with a variety of
detection devices, such as binoculars, telescopes,
and sound-detection equipment.
2. The use of dogs, foot patrols, and
mechanized units to patrol a given area. Such
teams physically search an area for signs of
evaders and escapees, such as footprints, cold
campfires, or discarded or lost equipment.
One way you can protect yourself and your
group from the eyes of the enemy is by using
camouflage. Camouflage is a major evasion tac-
tic used to hide an object, personnel, or equip-
ment. Camouflage permits you to see without
If you are in charge of a large group hiding
from the enemy, first break the group into many
small groups. Small groups are easier to conceal.
The enemy may estimate your location from your
actual movements or from physical signs left when
you moved through an area. Your position; shape;
shadow; or color of equipment, vehicles, or per-
sons can also reveal your location in the follow-
POSITION: An observer can easily see the
place of concealment if a person or an
object doesnt blend in with the back-
ground. When you choose a position for
concealment, use a background that will
absorb personnel or an object.
SHAPE: At a distance, an observer can
recognize the form or outline of an object
before the details can be seen. When
transiting from area to area, use available
cover, such as bushes, trees, and rock
formations, to distort your shape.
SHADOW: Since shadows may be more
revealing than the object itself, place
objects in the shadows of other objects to
make them easier to overlook.
COLOR: Contrast between the color of an
object and its background makes a person
or object easily visible. The greater the con-
trast in color, the greater the visibility.
Therefore, as a general principle, the
camouflage should match the darker and
medium light colors of the background.
Using vegetation and other materials
found locally to screen and stain equip-
ment makes it blend into the background.
Moonlit nights require the same precau-
tions as those used in daylight.
Conceal your presence when traveling by using
screens, backgrounds, and shadows to the fullest
advantage. Under favorable conditions enemy
observers can see as far as 100 yards in open
woods. Since even a dark night furnishes shadows,
choose a route that provides a concealing
background and avoids the skyline. On bright,
moonlit nights the shadows along the edge of the
woods make the best route. Sound gives an
amplified, revealing signal at night. Move care-
fully, quietly, and close to the ground.
In areas of light undergrowth, take the route
farthest into the woods for safety. Heavier
undergrowth is an obstacle to movement.
Therefore, when rapid movement is more impor-
tant than full concealment, travel along the out-
side edge of the woods.
Although concealing your presence is of major
importance, the most common deterrent to suc-
cessful evasion is a negative attitude. If you have
a positive attitude, you have the natural tendency
to take positive action. A negative attitude may
be caused by, related to, or a lack of the fol-