IMPLEMENT AND FOLLOW UP
activities, and the work for which each activity is
Put the solution into effect. No problem is solved
until action is taken. After all that work making a
decision, do not let your work be wasted. Follow up. Get
feedback on the progress of your solution. You may need
to review and revise your solution as it progresses. Also,
failure to follow up shows a lack of interest. Your
subordinates may wonder why they should be interested
in the plan.
Organizing is analyzing the mission, determining
the jobs, setting up the structure, and assigning
personnel. Since planning and organizing overlap,
saying precisely when planning stops and organizing
starts is nearly impossible.
The basic procedure of organizing consists of
considering mission and resources, putting them in
order, and carrying out plans. Factors considered
include functions, operations, tasks, material,
manpower, money, space, and time. You have four major
set up a structure, determine procedures,
establish requirements, and allocate resources.
Organizing is based on mission objectives.
Different missions require different types of
organization. The mission, however, does not tell you
what specific functions, operations, and tasks will be
required. It is simply a short statement of the end results
expected and is reduced to the following three areas:
1. FunctionsGeneral types of work that must be
performed to accomplish the mission
2. OperationsSpecific jobs that must be done to
perform a function
3. TasksIndividual jobs required to complete an
The important thing for you to remember is to break
the mission down into the functions, operations, and
tasks needed to accomplish it. Then group them by
similarities of required skills and equipment. The project
concept discussed under planning now comes into play.
Once you have grouped the various elements of the
mission, you must develop an organizational structure
based on that grouping. This structure will provide the
channel through which orders will travel, and it will
determine the assignment of responsibility and
authority. The typical organizational chart is a graphic
representation of a units structure. It shows the lines of
authority and responsibility, the relationships between
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
Objectives provide both direction and destination to
our efforts. Many managers make decisions without first
identifying the goals or objectives and planning the best
route for attaining them.
For our purposes, goals and objectives are
essentially the same. An objective is the desired end
result of your efforts. It should be consistent with your
unit mission. Objectives can be stated in broad terms
(overall objectives) or be precise (specific objectives).
You reach overall objectives through setting and
attaining subobjectives specific strategies, policies,
programs, and so forth.
To determine objectives, you first must define your
units overall mission. Your units intended function or
purpose is its mission.
Areas that need objectives include, but are not
limited to, work performance, worker attitudes,
retention, productivity, material, and finances.
What are controls? Controls are everywhere. The
governor on an engine, a fire alarm, a circuit breaker,
and extra military instruction (EMI) are all examples of
controls. You exercise control when you, the manager,
take steps to ensure you reach your goals. To achieve
control, you must monitor work progress and correct
deviations from established standards.
Controls can be total or partial. A smoke detector is
a familiar partial control system. It announces the
presence of smoke but does nothing to correct the
problem. A high-pressure safety valve on a boiler is a
total control system. It detects excessive pressure in the
boiler and corrects the problem by releasing steam until
pressure reaches an acceptable level (established
Although controlling concerns every facet of
management, planning and control are intimately
related. Sound planning determines the direction of an
organization. Good plans establish appropriate controls
to keep the organization on track.