Figure 4-1.-Gantt chart.
consideration to the range or life-span of a plan as well.
Plans come in three basic sizes with respect to range:
(1) long-range plans, (2) intermediate-range plans, and
(3) short-range plans.
Long-range plans run for 2 or more years and
sometimes as long as 30 years. Five-year plans for new
construction, manpower, and weapons procurement
typically fall into this category. Long-range plans reflect
the big picture and are generally reserved for top-level
managers. These are the plans people are least likely to
understand completely. Another name for long-range
plans is strategic plans.
Intermediate-range plans span 1 to 3 years.
Maintenance improvement, weapons systems upgrade,
and local manpower plans are typical examples of
intermediate-range plans. Intermediate-range planning
is normally associated with staff, department, and
sometimes division managers.
Management forms short-range plans at all levels.
They are, however, normally associated with managers
at the division, branch, and work center levels.
Implementation of new policies, work assignments, and
training syllabi are typical short-range plans. These
cover a time span from 1 day to 1 year.
TIMELINE (GANTT) CHARTS
Henry L. Gantt, in the late 19th century and early
20th century, refined methods of using graphics to plan,
track, and improve performance. Management uses the
Gantt chart extensively in project planning.
A project involves a sequence of activities that are
performed to achieve a specific goal. The project is
composed of several tasks that can overlap, precede,
follow, or occur simultaneously.
Typically, as shown in figure 4-1, you would list the
tasks required to complete the project down the left side
of the chart. This could also show to whom the task has