Quantcast METHODS OF CONTROL

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Cost-effectiveness–Controls consume money and man-hours. Unless a control system will save more than it costs to implement, look elsewhere for a solution. As you apply these principles of control, you must consider the time frame in which your controls operate. Controls operate in three modes in relation to time: feedforward, concurrent, and feedback. Feedforward control–This control, the most dynamic of the three, is designed to discover problems before they occur. Drawbacks to feedforward control are the heavy investment of time and the detailed management required to make this system work. A maintenance manager who adjusts leave and liberty schedules to meet anticipated workloads is practicing feedforward control. Concurrent control–This type of control effects corrections as they are needed. It does not predict them. When the process under control deviates from acceptable limits, concurrent control steps in and corrects problems as they occur. When you walk, you constantly monitor your stride and balance to avoid falling. This is concurrent control. Feedback control–Feedback control fixes a problem “after the fact.” For instance, a defense contractor who discovers during final testing that a component has a defective design must scrap the production run and fix the problem. The contractor may lose money on that one production run, but that is better than a congressional investigation for sending defective parts to the fleet. There are as many ways of attaining control as there are managers! Even standard control methods are personalized by individual managers to suit personal inclinations and individual situations. METHODS OF CONTROL Control  techniques  or  methods  are  generally described as either quantitative or nonquantitative. Quantitative Methods Quantitative methods use data and various quantitative tools to monitor and control production output. Two common quantitative tools are budgets and audits. By far the most widely recognized quantitative tool is the chart. Charts used as control tools normally contrast time and performance. The visual impact of a chart often provides the quickest method of relating data. A difference in numbers is much more noticeable when displayed graphically. Most charts are versions of either the Gantt chart or the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT). BUDGETS. –By far the best known control device is the budget. Budgets and control are, in fact, synonymous. An organization’s budget is an expression in financial terms of a plan for meeting the organization’s goals for a specific period. A budget is an instrument of planning, management, and control. We use budgets in two ways. First, we use them as established facts that must be factored into our operational planning. Second, we use them to prepare narrative descriptions and financial information that our chain of command uses in its annual request and management of its funds. At present, the Department of the Navy (DON) uses two major budget systems. These are zero-based budgeting (ZBB) and the planning, programming, and budgeting system (PPBS). AUDITS.   –Internal   auditing   provides   an independent review and appraisal of accounting, financial, and other nontactical operations. As a management tool, the audit measures and evaluates the effectiveness of management controls. The Naval Audit Service provides an independent audit of programs, activities, systems, and procedures. It also provides an independent audit of other operations involving the use of funds and resources and the accomplishment of management goals. Budgets and audits are addressed in detail in  Financial  Management  in  the  Navy, NAVEDTRA  10792-E. Nonquantitative Methods Nonquantitative methods refer to total or overall control of performance rather than specific processes. These methods use tools such as inspections, reports, direct supervision, and performance evaluation/counseling to accomplish goals. TOTAL QUALITY LEADERSHIP The DON has recently adopted the concept of Total Quality Leadership (TQL) as the means of meeting DON needs into the 21st century. Executive Order 12637,  signed  April  27,  1988,  establishes  the Productivity Improvement Program for the federal government. TQL IS THE NAVY’S ANSWER TO THIS ORDER. The concept behind TQL revolves around a change from leadership by results to leadership by process (quality) improvement. The manager’s task is to continually improve each and every process in his or her 4-15



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