talk incessantly about any subject at hand and often
Because the body develops a tolerance to
amphetamines, abusers must increase their dosages to
obtain the psychic effects they desire. Tolerance to all
the effects does not develop uniformly. Even a tolerant
abuser can experience high blood pressure, abnormal
heart rhythms, loss of appetite, excitability,
talkativeness, trembling hands, enlarged pupils, heavy
perspiration, and stereotypic compulsive behavior. In
serious cases, a drug psychosis resembling paranoid
psychosis develops. In addition, violent behavior may
follow the use of amphetamines because of
unpredictable mood changes.
Amphetamines for medical purposes are available
by prescription under a variety of trade names. They are
also manufactured in clandestine laboratories as
crystalline powder, as tablets, and in a variety of liquid
forms; they are then sold through illicit channels.
DEPRESSANTS. The drugs depress the central
nervous system. Abusers of depressants, such as
barbiturates and certain tranquilizers, exhibit most of the
symptoms of alcohol intoxication with one important
exception: no odor of alcohol is detected on their breath.
Depressant abusers may stagger or stumble and
frequently fall into a deep sleep. In general, depressant
abusers lack interest in activity, are drowsy, and may
appear to be disoriented.
Since depressants depress the central nervous
system, they are prescribed in small doses to reduce
restlessness and emotional tension and to induce sleep.
Some are valuable in the treatment of certain types of
Continued and excessive dosages of depressants
result in slurred speech, faulty judgment, a quick temper,
and a quarrelsome disposition. Overdoses, particularly
when taken in conjunction with alcohol, result in
unconsciousness and death unless the user receives
proper medical treatment.
Therapeutic doses cause minimal amounts of
psychological dependence, whereas excessive doses
taken over a period of time result in both physical and
psychological dependence. Abrupt withdrawal,
particularly from barbiturates, can produce convulsions.
Depressants are exceedingly dangerous.
chemicals extracted from plants or synthesized in
laboratories. LSD, mescaline,
and PCP (phencyclidine)
psilocybin and psilocin,
are all examples of
hallucinogens. Although openly and irresponsibly
promoted as a means of expanding consciousness,
hallucinogens have yet to be proved valuable medically.
Hence, neither standard dosage forms nor markings
exist that make visual identification possible.
Illicit labs produce hallucinogens in the form of
capsules, tablets, powders, or liquids; peddlers and users
use many methods to transport or hide the drugs. For
example, LSD has been found in sugar cubes, candy,
paper, aspirin, jewelry, liquor, cloth, and even on the
back of postage stamps.
Persons who use hallucinogenic drugs (such as
LSD) are highly unlikely to do so while at work. They
usually use such drugs in a group situation under special
conditions designed to enhance their effect.
Hallucinogens distort the users perception of objective
reality. They produce illusions involving the various
senses and, if taken in large doses, can produce
hallucinations. Persons under the influence of
hallucinogens usually sit or recline quietly in a
trance-like state. On occasion, users become fearful and
experience a degree of terror that may cause them to
attempt to escape from the group situation. An important
point to remember is that the effects of LSD may recur
days, or even months, after someone has taken it.
The effects of hallucinogens are not solely related
to the drug. They are modified by the mood, mental
attitude, and environment of the user. Hallucinogens
usually distort or intensify the sense of perception and
lessen the users ability to discriminate between fact and
fantasy. Users may speak of seeing sounds and
hearing colors. Their judgment of direction and
distance is generally out of proportion. Their pupils
dilate and their eyes become extremely sensitive to light.
They commonly experience restlessness and
sleeplessness until the drug wears off. The drugs have
an unpredictable mental effect on persons each time they
take them. As with stimulants and depressants, the user
of hallucinogens may develop a psychological
dependence. However, unlike depressants,
hallucinogens have not been shown to produce a
VOLATILE CHEMICALS. -The volatile
chemicals include model airplane glue, lacquer thinner,
gasoline, fingernail polish remover, and lighter fluid.
The substances contain xylol, creosol, naphtha, benzol,
tetraethyl lead, and other chemicals that can cause
severe damage to the body by attacking the oxygen