They have a lack of self-confidence.
They want to avoid the pressure of addi-
Counsel any of your subordinates who show
these signs of unwillingness. Help them overcome
their fears and learn to accept authority and
AUTHORITY AND POWER
With authority comes power. Power is the
ability to influence people toward organizational
objectives. However, you have limits on your
authority and power. View your authority and
power as a funnel, broad at the top and narrow
at the bottom. Always assume you have enough
authority and power to meet your obligations, but
do not exceed that limit.
Authority only exists when subordinates
accept the idea that the supervisor has authority
over them. Subordinates can fail to recognize
authority through disobedience, denial, or work
delays. Subordinates usually accept authority
readily; however, abusing your authority as a
supervisor can make you ineffective.
Although most authority in the Navy results
from a members rank or position in the chain
of command, many types of authority exist. Most
authority in the Navy is delegated.
LINE AUTHORITY. Line authority is the
authority you have over subordinates in your
chain of command. This type of authority
corresponds directly to your place within the chain
of command and does not exist outside the chain
STAFF AUTHORITY. Staff authority is
the right of staff to counsel, advise, or make
recommendations to line personnel. This type of
authority does not give staff the right to give line
personnel orders that affect the mission of the line
A chief from another work center or division
could, by virtue of his or her rank, exercise staff
authority over a person in your work center or
division by counseling or advising him or her to
get a haircut. Failure to follow the advice or
counsel may result in nonjudicial punishment
(NJP) for the subordinate. The other chief would
not, however, have the authority to enter your
work center or division and make changes that
only you and your superiors have the authority
FUNCTIONAL AUTHORITY. Certain staff
organizations are granted functional authority to
direct line units within the area of the staff's
specialty. Examples of staff organizations with
functional authority include the Legal, Equal
Opportunity, and Safety Departments.
In conjunction with your authority, you use
power to influence others toward the accomplish-
ment of command goals. You can use power for
personal gain or for the good of the organization.
However, if your subordinates believe you use
power for personal gain, you will soon suffer an
erosion of that power. On the other hand, if
subordinates believe you use power to accomplish
the organizational goals, your power to influence
them will become stronger. Your power will also
become stronger when you share it through
delegation of authority.
Of the six types of powerreward, coercive,
legitimate, informational, referent, and expert
you may use one or more in various combinations.
Each situation will determine the one or ones you
REWARD POWER. Reward power stems
from your use of positive and negative rewards
to influence subordinates. Positive rewards range
from a smile or kind word to recommendations
for awards. Negative rewards range from corrective-
type counseling to placing a person on report.
You will find one of the best ways to influence
your subordinates is through the use of your
reward power. As a chief, you are responsible for
starting the positive reward process. First, write
a recommendation for the award. Once the
recommendation is typed in the commands
standard award letter format, forward it up the
chain of command for approval. Your job does
not end here. Always follow-up on the recommen-
dation, using your influence and persuasion to get
the award to the proper command level.
Frequent use of positive rewards will amplify
the effect of a negative reward. Give positive
rewards freely, but use restraint in giving negative
rewards. If you use negative rewards frequently,
subordinates will begin to expect a negative
reward. Their expectation of a negative reward
will lessen your power.