ACTIVITIES. Your subordinates expect
you to control their work by comparing it to a
set standard. When they know you will exercise
that control, they will try to meet that standard.
TIMELINESS. Since managers need time to
take corrective action when tasks deviate from the
normal standard, subordinates must make a timely
report of those deviations. The timeliness of
reports depends on the amount of time a manager
designates as adequateit could range from
minutes to months. Therefore, when designing
your control system, specify the amount of time
you consider to be timely.
EFFECTIVENESS. Control systems may
involve additional cost. You should work to
reduce the cost of your control system, while still
retaining an effective system. Additional costs
could result from the need for additional people,
material, equipment, or time. Evaluate your
control system to eliminate or modify needless
ACCURACY. Your control system monitors
progress and serves as the basis for corrective
action. Therefore, you should ensure it provides
you with accurate information from which to
make decisions. Be aware that since people are
human, errors will occur in the reporting process.
Also realize some people will present information
in a manner that will reemphasize the negative
while accentuating the positive. People usually
present information in that manner to try to make
themselves look good.
ACCEPTANCE. People usually resist con-
trol. The strongest resistance comes when people
perceive the control to be excessive. Excessive
control gives the impression you do not trust your
To avoid resistance, explain the purpose of the
control system to your subordinates. Make them
feel they have an interest in the success of the
system. By explaining the purpose and generating
interest in the control system, you have a greater
chance of convincing subordinates to accept it.
Organization is the process of arranging
material and personnel by functions to attain
the objective of the command. Organization
establishes the working relationships among
command personnel and establishes the flow of
work, It promotes teamwork and identifies the
authority, responsibility, and accountability of
individuals within the command.
An in-depth discussion of organization is well
beyond the scope of this text. Therefore, this
chapter will touch on only a few basic ideas and
concepts of which you should be aware. Those
ideas and concepts include types of organizations,
organizational concepts, delegation of work, and
authority and power.
Types of Organization
Of the many different types of organization
used today, the Navy uses three specific types:
line, staff, and functional.
LINE. Line organizations refer to the major
departments responsible for accomplishing the
mission of the command. These departments are
usually Deck, Engineering, Operations, Weapons
or Combat Systems, and Air.
STAFF. Staff organizations refer to person-
nel who advise, assist, counsel, and serve the line
departments. Staff usually does not have authority
over line departments. Examples of staff include
the Supply Department, 3-M Coordinator, educa-
tional services officer (ESO), and drug and alcohol
program advisor (DAPA).
FUNCTIONAL. Functional organizations
refer to special departments that are neither line
nor staff. Usually a functional organization starts
out filling a staff function and becomes so
important to the success of the command that it
is given special status. The manager has the
authority to ensure all parts of the command
perform as necessary to carry out that function.
Examples of functional organizations include the
Medical, Safety, Legal, and Administrative
At certain times you must report items such
as personnel readiness or material readiness to
higher authority. The method used to make these
reports will vary from command to command.
However, certain basic concepts are common to
all methods: the chain of command, unity of
command, span of control, and specialization.
CHAIN OF COMMAND. The chain of
command is the order of authority among Navy