In chemical warfare (CW) operations, chemical
kill or disable personnel by affecting their
blood, nerves, eyes, skin, lungs, or stomach. Biological
w a r f a r e
( B W )
o p e r a t i o n
a g e n t s
i n c l u d e
microorganisms, fungi, toxins, and microtoxins to
cause diseases that will kill or produce other casualties.
Nuclear weapons produce explosions of great force and
heat and release nuclear radiation.
Many types of weapons and methods may be used
to deliver chemical and biological agents and nuclear
bombs. The use of two or more different types of
weapons to deliver these agents may be used at the same
time. Missiles having long-range attack capability
provide a means of delivering chemical, biological, and
nuclear weapons that can be launched in almost any
manner by land, sea, and/or air units.
Chemical agents have been placed in projectiles
and used effectively. A similar possibility exists with
biological agents; however, for technical reasons it
appears that the most probable method of delivery is by
Learning Objectives: When you finish this chapter,
you will be able to
Identify terms used with chemical warfare (CW).
Identify types of CW.
Identify the effects of CW agents.
Identify self-aid and first-aid methods for
countering nerve, blister, and choking agents.
CW agents are used to produce death, injury,
temporary incapacitation, or irritation effects. Broadly
speaking, there are two types of antipersonnel
agentscasualty and incapacitating. Some of the types
of CW agents are described in table 13-1.
Difficulty breathing, excessive contraction of the pupil of the eye
(miosis), blurred vision, headache and nausea leading to respiratory
distress, convulsions, and eventually death.
Difficulty breathing, miosis, blurred vision, headache and nausea
leading to respiratory distress, convulsions, and eventually death.
Blisters or irritates skin, eyes, and lungs.
Prevents the normal transfer of oxygen from the blood to body
tissue resulting in respiratory paralysis.
Table 13-1.Characteristics of Selected CW Agents