continue, the eyes, mouth, and skin should be flushed
with large amounts of water. Although the effects of
vomiting agents can be dramatic, personnel can usually
perform duties despite their effects. Personnel should
continue to wear a face mask even though coughing,
sneezing, salivating, and nausea occur. (The mask can
be lifted from the face briefly to allow for vomiting and
to drain saliva from the face piece). Analgesics can be
given to relieve headache and general discomfort.
REVIEW 1 QUESTIONS
Q1. What term is used to describe weapons that
destroy large areas or kill and disable large
segments of a population?
Q2. What is the most probable delivery method for
chemical or biological weapons?
Q3. List the two types of antipersonnel agents.
Q4. The use of nerve agents produces symptoms that
are similar to what other, more common
Q5. What part of the body is most affected by blister
Q6. If you are exposed to a blood agent, what action
should you take first?
Q7. True or false. Cough suppressant and pain
relievers can be given to a victim of a choking
Learning Objectives: When you finish this chapter,
you will be able to
Recall the terms used with biological warfare
Identify the types of BW.
Identify the effects of BW.
Biological warfare (BW) is the intentional use of
living organisms, toxins, and microtoxins to disable or
to destroy people and domestic animals, damage crops,
or deteriorate supplies. BW might be used on a large
scale; therefore, biological immunizations of military
forces and the development of detection equipment,
such as the Interim Biological Agent Detection System
(IBADS), are being used. Some of the types of BW
agents and their symptoms are described in table 13-2.
Do not underestimate BW as a weapon. BW
agents can be produced on a scale not considered
possible in the past. Even small nations with modern,
adequate research facilities can produce large quantities
of BW toxins and microtoxins more cheaply than they
can produce other types of weapons. These toxins and
microtoxins are hundreds to thousands times stronger
than todays chemical weapons. The disadvantage of
BW agents is that many are rapidly degraded when
exposed to certain environmental conditions, such as
ultraviolet radiation, visible radiation, heat, dryness, or
Animals, insects, and rodents can be used as
carriers to spread BW agents. Saboteurs can also infect
large numbers of people by contaminating a water
supply. Infecting water, milk, and food supplies with
microorganisms can spread diseases, such as anthrax,
typhoid fever, cholera, and influenza.
In the early stages of any biological disease, the
general symptoms include fever, malaise, and