CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, AND RADIOLOGICAL
As a member of the Navy, you need a good working
knowledge of chemical, biological, and radiological
defense (CBR-D). CBR-D is defined as defensive
measures taken against the effects of a chemical, a
biological, or a nuclear weapons attack. Training in
defensive measures lets the command maintain
operational readiness and complete its mission.
Throughout history, countries and factions have
developed and used chemical, biological, and
radiological (CBR) warfare. In WWI, chlorine gas was
used, which forced the development of the gas mask. In
WWII, nuclear weapons were used for the first time.
During WWII, many nations began developing
chemical and biological agents as a warfare tool. More
recently, a nerve agent was used in Japans subway
system, and blister agents were used on the Kurds
during the Iraq and Iran war. The use of CBR clearly
demonstrates the need for a positive defensive posture
within our Navy.
United States national policy prohibits our being
the first to use chemical agents against an attacking
nation. The approval for our initial use of chemical
weapons must come from the President of the United
The United States will not use biological agents,
including toxins, regardless of source or manner of
production, or other methods of biological warfare
under any circumstances. The United States strictly
limits its biological and toxin research program to
defensive measures, such as production of vaccines,
antidotes, treatment, and protective equipment.
An aggressive nation might decide using a chemical
or biological (CB) weapon first is to its advantage,
perhaps as a surprise attack. Therefore, all members of
the U.S. Navy must be highly trained in CBR-D.
CBR-D training allows Navy units to survive CBR
attacks and continue to fight and defend their ship or
unit under CBR-contaminated conditions.
The need for training in CBR-D is never ending.
The Navy has developed and continues to develop
different countermeasures against many possible CBR
applications that an enemy might think of. Because
p o s s i b l e e n e m i e s c o n t i n u a l l y d ev e l o p C B R
applications, training programs using information
about the greatest CBR threats are developed to train
naval personnel. These programs include disaster
preparedness drills and personnel qualification
standards (PQS). Dont take this training lightly; it may
save your life.
CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, AND
NUCLEAR WARFARE OPERATIONS
Learning Objectives: When you finish this chapter,
you will be able to
R e c o g n i z e
c h e m i c a l ,
b i o l o g i c a l ,
a n d
radiological (CBR) attack methods.
Recognize the need for CBR defense.
Identify terms used with CBR.
The primary purpose of nuclear weapons is the
mass destruction of targets and personnel. The primary
purpose of biological and chemical attacks is the mass
casualties of personnel, livestock, and/or crops. These
weapons are called weapons of mass destruction
because they destroy large areas or kill and disable large
segments of the population.
If we do not stem the proliferation of the worlds deadliest weapons, no
democracy can feel secure... One of our most urgent priorities must be attacking
the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, whether they are nuclear,
chemical or biological.
President Bill Clinton