Use the demonstration or doing method to
teach skills. Demonstrate, step-by-step, the
procedures in a job task, using the exact physical
procedures if possible. While demonstrating, explain
the reason for and the significance of each step. To be
effective, plan the demonstration so that you will be
sure to show the steps in the proper sequence and to
include all steps.
If you must give the demonstration before a large
group or if the trainees might have trouble seeing
because of the size of the equipment involved, use
enlarged devices or training aids. When practical,
allow trainees to repeat the procedure in a hands on
practice session to reinforce the learning process. By
immediately correcting the trainees mistakes and
reinforcing proper procedures, you can help them learn
the task more quickly. The direct demonstration
approach is a very effective method of instruction,
especially when trainees have the opportunity to repeat
DEMONSTRATION METHOD.The basic
method of instruction for teaching skill-type subject
matter is the demonstration-performance method of
instruction. This method is recommended for teaching
a skill because it covers all the necessary steps in an
effective learning order.
The demonstration step gives trainees the
opportunity to see and hear the details related to the
skill being taught. Those details include the necessary
background knowledge, the steps or procedure, the
nomenclature, and the safety precautions. The
repetition step helps the average and slow learners and
gives the trainees an additional opportunity to see and
hear the skill being taught. The performance step gives
all trainees the opportunity to become proficient. In
short, this method is recommended because it leaves
nothing to chance.
For convenience, the techniques for imparting
skills are presented in steps, rather than activities.
When setting up an instructional plan, understand that
you dont have to follow these steps in the sequence
presented; instead choose the steps in the sequence
best suited to the needs of the trainees. Although you
will always include a demonstration step and a
performance step, you must use judgment in selecting
techniques to make the various steps effective.
GENERAL HINTS.Make every effort to get
trainees to observe correct procedures the first time
they try a new task. The most effective learning results
when trainees use a skill immediately after you have
taught it. So as soon as you teach trainees to do a job,
have them practice the skill.
Teaching applicable safety precautions is
especially important. Teach a safety precaution just
before reaching the point in your demonstration where
it applies. State the reason for the precaution so that the
trainees will understand the need for compliance.
Patience is a virtue for any petty officer. If it does
not come naturally to you, you must train yourself to be
patient. A slow learner may never acquire the
knowledge or skill you are trying to impart if you are
Avoid sarcasm toward a bungler; that person may
be trying harder than you suspect. Nothing exhausts
the patience of the expert as much as the fumbling
attempts of a beginner; however, the instructor must
patiently demonstrate and explain until the trainee
acquires the needed competence. Good instruction
means a more effective crew, and such an asset justifies
any amount of patience.
If you find that your trainees have not learned what
you tried to teach them, do not react as if they disobeyed
orders. If trainees do not understand a certain lesson or
operation, that could indicate a poor job of teaching. The
old saying, If the learner hasnt learned, the teacher
hasnt taught might apply in some situations.
You can use instructional techniques with any of the
above methods. These techniques include the use of the
lesson summary, oral questioning, and training aids.
The term summary as used here refers to that part
of the lesson in which the instructor reviews the
material covered. When summarizing, keep in mind
two major aims. First, you want to help the trainees
identify and organize the subject matter. Second, you
want to assist the trainees in understanding and, where
necessary, in memorizing the subject matter. Use the
following techniques in summarizing a lesson:
Introduce the summary properly.
Summarize the subject matter thoroughly. Plan
the summary so that it assists the trainees in organizing