the important subject matter into a form more easily
learned. Review the actual subject matter, not just the
topic, thoroughly enough for the trainees to gain an
adequate understanding of the subject. Having the
trainees review the topics (class notes) will aid them in
understanding the subject.
Avoid a strictly oral summary, if possible.
Remember, if you need training aids to make the right
kind of lesson presentation, then you also need them for
the right kind of summary.
Summarize at appropriate intervals. If the lesson
is long, for example, 2 or 3 hours in duration, you would
be wise to summarize at the end of each period or at the
end of each significant area of subject matter. Trainees
will absorb short summaries better than an unduly long
summary at the end of the complete lesson.
Enough emphasis cannot be placed on the
importance of questioning in any teaching situation.
Often the difference between a dull, boring lecture and
a lively discussion is only a matter of some
well-planned, well-directed oral questions. The ability
to direct thought-through questioning is recognized as
one of the most valid proofs of teaching skill. A direct
relationship exists between your success as an
instructor and the quality and quantity of oral
questioning you use in teaching. Therefore, you will
find the following techniques of invaluable use to you,
as an instructor:
Stimulate trainee thought. Ask questions that
call for the application of facts, rather than just facts
alone. Facts easily can be committed to memory and
require little or no thought on the part of the trainee.
Establish a level of instruction. Ask questions
that require trainees to comment on previous experience
in the subject matter you are going to teach. By asking a
series of oral questions, you can determine the trainees
level of knowledge in a particular subject matter. That
information will enable you to determine the level at
which you should begin instruction.
Arouse interest. Asking a general question, such
as How many of you have fired a .50-caliber machine
gun? or How many persons died on the highways last
year? will serve to clear trainees minds of any
extraneous thoughts. Such questions aid in motivating
trainees, as they mentally search for an answer. This
type of questioning usually is used to generate interest
in a large block of subject matter, usually a lesson as a
Focus the trainees attention. By asking a
question about a particular part of a model, mock-up,
chart, demonstration piece, or chalkboard drawing, you
can direct the traineesattention to that immediate area.
Review the subject matter. Devise questions
requiring trainees to solve problems that will provide
them with an opportunity to apply knowledge. Again,
ask questions that emphasize the ability to reason and
not the ability to recall mere facts.
Drill on the subject matter. To help trainees
remember certain facts, figures, shapes, formulas, and
so forth, use preplanned oral questions to reinforce a
subject matter in the trainees minds. This technique
eventually will lead to the trainees mastery of the
subject on which they are being drilled.
Check for comprehension. Ask questions
covering the main points of the lesson to detect and
correct errors in thinking and to locate areas you need to
Increase trainee participation. Encourage
trainees to take an active part in the instruction by
allowing them to both answer and ask questions.
Increase trainee learning. Encourage trainees to
ask questions to help them learn. Trainees remember
information longer if the material is given as answers to
their own questions.
Develop communication skills. Allow trainees to
ask and answer questions to improve their speaking
skills. Active involvement in the class discussion
increases their listening skills. Asking and answering
questions helps trainees organize their thoughts.
During a class discussion, what questioning
technique should be used?
Yes or no