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ACCOMMODATION LADDER Frequently, the accommodation ladder is mistakenly called the gangway. However, gangway actually means the opening in a bulwark or life rail that gives access to a brow or an accommodation ladder. An accommodation ladder (fig. 7-4) consists essentially of an upper and a lower platform connected by a ladder. The lower end is supported, raised, and lowered by a block and tackle (called falls) and is usually suspended from a davit. Brow  is the Navy term for gangplank. Brows are ramps used between ships and between a ship and pier. They may be simply two or three wooden planks fastened together, or they may be elaborate affairs with handrails and wheels at one or both ends to prevent a ship’s motion from unduly affecting the positioning of the brow. MOORING LINES A ship is moored when it’s made fast to a buoy, when it’s between two buoys, when it’s between two anchors, or when it’s secured by lines alongside a pier or another ship. The lines used in mooring a ship alongside a pier are shown in figure 7-5. Well in advance of mooring, the lines should be faked down, fore and aft, each near the chock through which it passes in preparation for passing the line. You will learn about the procedure for faking a line  and  a  description  of  deck  fittings  later  in  this chapter. Rat guards are hinged conical metal shields secured around  mooring  lines.  They  are  used  to  prevent  rats from coming aboard ship. The bowline and forward spring lines prevent the ship from drifting astern. The stern line and after spring lines  prevent  the  ship  from  drifting  forward.  Look  at figure  7-5.  Here,  lines  1,  3,  and  5  are  called  forward lines;  lines  2,  4,  and  6  are  called  after lines.  When secured,  these  lines  tend  to  breast  the  ship  in.  The forward and after spring lines are used to prevent the ship from drifting forward or aft. NOTE The  various  types  of  line  and  wire  rope  are discussed  in  the  “Marlinespike  Seamanship” section of this chapter. Teamwork  is  essential  in  carrying  out  the mooring  operation.  Lines  must  not  be  kinked  or fouled. Keep control of the lines and avoid dipping them into  the  water.  Remember,  observe  all  safety precautions! If the ship is to remain moored for a long period, lines are doubled up and bound together with marline hitches, and rat guards are placed on each line. Look at figure 7-6. To provide protection to the side of the ship while it is alongside a pier, camels (large wooden logs or rectangular structures) (views B and C) are often placed between the pier and the ship. Fenders (large cylindrical objects of rubber or fibrous material) (views A and D) are  swung  over  the  side  of  the  ship  to  give  bumper support against damage whenever a ship lies alongside another ship or a pier. 7-3 Student Notes: Figure 7-4.—A rigged accommodation ladder. Figure 7-5.—Ship’s mooring lines.

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