Anchors can be defined by their stowage locations
aboard ship or by their type of construction. Bower
anchors are carried on the bow and are secured (housed)
in the hawsepipes. Stern anchors are carried on the stern.
On landing ships and craft, stern anchors are secured to
the stern and are used to help pull away from beaches.
The most common types of anchors used aboard
ship are the stockless and the lightweight (or
stock-in-crown) anchors. The two anchors shown in
figure 7-2 are of Navy design. The stockless types are
used chiefly as bow anchors (bowers) on most Navy
ships. Originally, the lightweight types were used only
on small boats and as stern anchors of landing ships and
craft. However, recently they are carried as bowers for
several types of vessels.
Modern Navy anchor chain consists of studded links
of high strength steel. (Studs are crosspieces of metal
forged or welded in the center of the links to prevent the
chain from kinking.) Chains are made up of 15-fathom
(90-foot) sections called standard shots. The number of
shots per chain depends on the size of the ship. Shots are
secured together by detachable links that can be readily
disassembled whenever it is desirable to break the chain.
As the chain comes aboard, it passes along the deck
on metal flash plates, over the wildcat, and down into the
chain locker. Each chain goes into a bin called a chain
locker, as shown in figure 7-1. Its bitter end is secured to a
ring bolt on the bulkhead of the chain locker.
The Navy uses two types of anchor windlasses for
lifting the ships anchorthe vertical shaft type and the
horizontal shaft type (fig. 7-3). The vertical shaft type is
used on most combatant ships. The horizontal shaft type
is used on amphibious and auxiliary ships. Both types
are equipped with wildcats, which engage the links of
the anchor chain. The wildcat may be disengaged when
it is desired to use the capstan (vertical type) or the
gypsy heads (horizontal type) for handling lines or wire.
Figure 7-1.Typical ground tackle and chain stowage.
Figure 7-3.Horizontal shaft anchor windlass.