POSITIVE EXPECTATIONS. Leaders
who have positive expectations express a belief or
trust in peoples basic worth or ability to perform.
Your expectation of your subordinates ability to
perform affects the climate in which they work.
Positive expectations are important in motivating
subordinates to work, but they are also important
in advising and counseling sessions.
So far, we have only talked about leadership
skills that deal with actions and behavior. The
skills in the advising and counseling skill group
deal with how you think. Since the way you think
affects your actions, your subordinates can see
how you view their basic worth. Therefore, they
will know if you have positive expectations.
To develop positive expectations of a person,
follow five basic guidelines:
Focus and build on the persons strengths,
Express positive expectations about the
Listen and pay attention to the person.
Emphasize the persons worth.
Have confidence in your own ability to help
the person solve the problem.
REALISTIC EXPECTATIONS. Subordi-
nates will have high levels of productivity only if
they consider your expectations to be realistic and
achievable. If you encourage subordinates to strive
for unattainable goals, they will eventually quit try-
ing to reach those goals. They will then settle for
lower productivity than they are capable of achieving.
A leaders realistic expectations are those
doubts and concerns about the ability of others
to perform. Realistic expectations help you see
personal blocks that prevent a person from solving
problems or learning how to operate equipment.
Expectations affect performance. If you
expect subordinates to perform poorly, you will
be unable to hide that expectation from your
subordinates. Indifferent and noncommittal
treatment of subordinates usually communicates
low expectations, which, in turn, leads to poor
performance. For example, suppose you say
nothing about your subordinates performance.
They might then interpret your silence to mean
you are unhappy with their work or that they
cannot do a good job.
Realistic expectations and negative expecta-
tions are completely different. Realistic expecta-
tions involve objectively assessing a subordinates
ability. Negative expectations involve prejudg-
ing, getting down on, or giving up on a
subordinate. Negative expectations can lead to
UNDERSTANDING. Effective leaders
accurately identify and help others to understand
what created a problem. They accurately assess
the motives, thoughts, and behavior patterns of
others and respond appropriately to improve job
When a personal problem causes a perform-
ance problem, know what resources are available
to help the individual. Your subordinates will
respect your knowledge, experience, and advice
and will appreciate any interest you show in their
ADVISING AND COUNSELING SES-
SIONS. This section explains key points
involved in effective advising and counseling
sessions. It covers types of advising and counseling
sessions and the actual process involved in each.
KEY COUNSELING POINTS
We perform counseling to solve a problem
or to fulfill a need.
Determine interview goal before meeting
Review available records.
Give the individual the facts, whether they
are pleasant or unpleasant.
Be a good listener. Be fair.
Refer individual to other resources for
professional help, as needed.
Keep the individuals problem confi-
Help the individual grow in self-under-
DO NOT lose your self control. The results
could be disastrous.
DO NOT make promises you cant keep.
DO NOT be quick to decide; not all
problems are solvable in a single
DO NOT forget to document the
counseling and have the counselee sign the
You will be involved with four major types
advising and counseling sessions: