following signs. They can tell you the enemys
location as well as other valuable information.
1. Signs that groups have passed, such as crushed
grass, broken branches, footprints, cigarette
butts, or other discarded trash, may reveal their
identity and size, their direction of travel, and
the time they passed through.
2. Workers in fields may indicate absence of the
3. Apparently normal activities in villages may
indicate absence of the enemy.
4. Less obvious conditions may indicate the
presence of the enemy, such as the following:
a. The absence of workers in fields is an
indication that the enemy is near.
b. The absence of children in a village is an
indication that the children have been
hidden to protect them from action that may
c. The absence of young people in a village is
an indication that the enemy controls the
Some evasion techniques you may find useful are
cover, concealment, and camouflage. To keep yourself
from being seen, you may have to hide in bushes or lie
flat in shallow ditches using brush as a cover or
When evading the enemy, remember the following
1. Conceal yourself from enemy aircraft and
nearby enemy troops.
2. Move quietly; noises carry in fog, fallen snow,
heavy foliage, and over rock faces.
3. Maintain personal hygiene to prevent body
odor; cover body waste and scraps of food;
avoid activities, such as cooking and smoking,
that produce smells; such smells can reveal your
4. Dont make sudden, rapid movements that can
reveal your location.
5. Select routes for movement that avoid exposed
areas and dont show your silhouette against the
skyline. Dont leave obvious tracks.
Crude Direction-Finding Techniques
How do you determine direction without a
compass? Nature can help you or nature can fool
you. The two best crude sources of direction are the
sun and the stars, but you must know how to use
These are very crude direction-finding techniques;
you may only use them in the Northern Hemisphere. If
your ship or aircraft is going to be operating in the
Southern Hemisphere, you should learn the techniques
for that area of the world.
The route that you select to travel while trying to
evade the enemy depends on your situation, the weather
conditions, and the nature of the terrain. Whether you
select a ridge, stream, valley, coastline, dense forest, or
mountain range to follow, be sure it is the safest, rather
than the easiest, way. Experience has proved that the
most difficult route is frequently the safest.
Some tips you can use when traveling include the
The sun travels from the eastern sky to the
western sky. How can you use the sun to
determine an east-west direction?
You can use shadows (even on a cloudy
day) made by the sun to get an accurate
east-west line. On a flat surface, drive a stick 3
or 4 feet high in the ground. Then mark the tip
of the sticks shadow with a rock. If you wait
awhile and then mark the shadow again, you
will see that the line connecting the tips of the
shadows inscribes an east-west line on the
To use the stars, you must have a clear
night. You may locate north by finding the
North Star (Polaris), the outermost star in the
handle of the Little Dipper.