POLICIES AND PROGRAMS
What is a policy or a program? A policy is an overall
plan that contains general goals and broad guidelines.
Policy usually establishes the end to be attained, not the
means of getting there. A program is a plan or system
under which action may be taken towards a goal.
Programs provide the means to reach the end (goal)
stated by the policy. In other words, policies tell where
to go; programs tell how to get there. This chapter
covers some of the policies and programs of the U. S.
Learning Objectives: When you finish this chapter,
you will be able to
Identify the need for environmental pollution
control to include the sources and effects
(natural, historical, archeological, physical, and
biological) of pollution.
Recognize the Navy programs for pollution
control to include the Clean Air Act, Clean Water
Act, and Noise Prevention Ashore.
The Navys ability to accomplish its mission
requires daily operations in land, sea, and air
environments. The Navy is committed to operating
ships and shore facilities in a manner compatible with
the environment. National defense and environmental
protection are and must be compatible goals. Therefore,
an important part of the Navys mission is to prevent
pollution, protect the environment, and conserve
natural, historic, and cultural resources. To accomplish
this mission element, personnel must be aware of the
environmental and natural resources laws and
regulations that have been established by federal, state,
and local governments. The Navy chain of command
must provide leadership and a personal commitment to
ensure that all Navy personnel develop and exhibit an
environmental protection ethic.
Environmental pollution is the altering of the
natural environment in an adverse way. Pollution can
result from the presence of chemical, physical, or
biological agents in the air, water, or soil. Some of the
worst effects of pollution are economic loss
(agricultural and industrial), fewer recreational
opportunities, and the marring of the earths natural
beauty. Pollutants affect human health and comfort, fish
and wildlife, plant life, water resources, physical
structures, and equipment. In other words,
environmental pollution results from any substance
added to our water, air, or land that makes it less fit for
use by plants, animals, or human beings.
SOURCES OF POLLUTION
Nature contributes to pollution by eroding the soil
causing silt to build up in streams and by volcanic
eruptions that pollute the atmosphere. However, people
cause most pollution problems in the world. The main
sources of pollutants are agricultural, industrial,
municipal, and transportation operations.
Agricultural pollutants include insecticides,
herbicides, pesticides, natural and chemical fertilizers,
drainage from animal feedlots, salts from field
irrigation, and silts from uncontrolled soil erosion.
Industrial operations produce a wide variety of
pollutants. Industrial pollutants include acids from
mines and factories, thermal discharges from power
plants, and radioactive wastes from mining and
processing certain ores. Industries create pollutants by
producing food, chemicals, metals, petroleum products,
and poisons, as well as countless other by-products of
our countrys technology.
The primary municipal pollutants are raw or
inadequately treated sewage. Other municipal
pollutants include refuse, storm-water overflows, and
salts used on streets in wintertime.
Transportation pollutants include emissions from
aircraft, trains, waterborne vessels, and cars and trucks.
Motor vehicles create most of our air pollutants
through their release of unburned fuel vapors
(hydrocarbons). Oil becomes a pollutant when ships
When you cease to make a contribution, you begin to die.