Quantcast AIRCRAFT NOMENCLATURE - 14325_227

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50 mph. By contrast, today’s high-performance planes have speeds in excess of 2,000 mph. AIRCRAFT NOMENCLATURE In this section, you will learn the basic parts of aircraft and how the Navy identifies aircraft. Fixed-Wing Aircraft Nomenclature A  fixed-wing  aircraft  (fig.  8-39)  may  be  divided into three basic parts—fuselage, wings, and empennage (tail). FUSELAGE.—The fuselage is the main body of the aircraft, containing the cockpit and, if there is one, the  cabin.  On  virtually  all  naval  fighter  and  attack aircraft operational today, the engines and some of the fuel tanks are mounted within the fuselage. WINGS.—Wings are the primary lifting devices of an aircraft, although some lift is derived from the fuselage and tail. Located on the trailing (rear) edge of the wings are flaps that may be used to give extra lift on takeoff  or  to  slow  the  aircraft  in  flight  or  landings; ailerons that control the roll or bank of the aircraft; and trim tabs used to aerodynamically unload the control surfaces  to  relieve  some  of  the  pilot’s  work.  On  the leading  (front)  edge  of  the  wing  may  be  found auxiliary lifting devices, resembling flaps, which are used  to  increase  camber  (curvature)  of  the  wing  for added lift on takeoff. Most Navy jet aircraft carry their bomb loads on pylons (called stations) under the wings and, in some cases, under the fuselage. Some jets have missile stations on the sides of the fuselage. Fuel cells are located in the wings; additional external tanks can be  fitted  for  extra  range.  Larger  jets  may  have  their engines  slung  beneath  the  wings  in  pods.  Some low-wing aircraft have their main landing gear retract into the wings, while the nose wheel retracts into the fuselage. On most high-wing aircraft all gear retracts into the fuselage. EMPENNAGE.—The empennage consists of the stabilizing  fins  mounted  on  the  tail  section  of  the fuselage. These include the vertical stabilizer on which is generally mounted the rudder that is used to control yaw, or direction of the nose about the vertical axis; and the horizontal stabilizer, on the trailing edge of which are the elevators that determine the pitch (climb or dive). Some supersonic aircraft may have a full delta wing. In that  case,  there  is  no  horizontal  stabilizer  and  the elevators  and  ailerons  are  combined  into  control surfaces called elevons. In  aircraft  with  internally  mounted  jet  engines, exhausts normally are in the tail. High-performance jets have afterburners that give additional thrust at the cost of greatly increased fuel consumption. Rudder,  ailerons,  and  elevators  are  collectively grouped  as  control  surfaces.  The  “stick”  or  a  similar device in the cockpit controls these surfaces, while foot pedals  control  the  rudder.  On  high-performance aircraft,  aerodynamic  pressures  on  these  surfaces become  too  great  for  a  pilot  to  overcome  manually; hence, all high-speed models today have power-assisted controls. Rotary-Wing Aircraft Nomenclature The  aerodynamics  of  rotary-wing  aircraft  (fig. 8-40)  are  considerably  more  complex  than  those  of fixed-wing aircraft. A helicopter essentially consists of a fuselage, main rotor or rotors, and often a tail rotor. FUSELAGE.—As  in  fixed-wing  aircraft,  the fuselage contains the cockpit and cabin. MAIN  ROTOR.—The   main   rotor   is   the approximate  equivalent  of  the  wing  of  a  fixed-wing aircraft. Each rotor blade is an airfoil, like a wing, and 8-33 Figure 8-39. Fixed-wing aircraft. Student Notes:



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