Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following:
1. Describe the organizational, administrative, and 3.
counseling skills required of a division officer.
2. Describe the purpose and function of an enlisted 4.
performance ranking board.
Explain the purpose and function of the Navy
State the purpose of the Casualty Assistance Calls
Ships company divisions in the U.S. Navy, like
most American naval customs and practices, are an
adaptation from the British.
For the most part the manning of early English ships
was by sottish, slovenly and lazy seamen, to quote a
top-ranking British officer of those times. Crewmen
were subject to little or no standard discipline. By the
middle of the 18th century, a growing spirit of insolence
and licentiousness on many vessels alarmed the Royal
Navy authorities. They began to concentrate on ways
and means to remedy the disorderly and audacious
Naval officials were aware that well-planned and
strictly supported discipline among military units ashore
was important. It gave force, preserved order,
obedience, cleanliness, and caused alertness and
despatch in the execution of business. Sir Charles
Middleton incorporated a similar code of discipline in
English shipboard routine while commanding HMS
Ardent (Middleton later became Comptroller of the
Navy, 1778-1790, and First Lord, April 1805-January
In his Captains Order Book (1 Aug 1775),
Middleton wrote the following: The first lieutenant to
make out a watch, quarter and chasing (station) bill.
Mates and midshipmen, petty officers and men, to be
classed in four divisions; each division to be under the
direction of a lieutenant. The lieutenants commanding
the respective divisions to see that the clothes and beds
of the men under them are made up to the quantity
specified in the following report . . . . jackets 3,
waistcoats 2, breeches 2, shirts 4, frocks 2, trowsers 2,
shoes 2, stockings 4, beds 1, caps or hats 2. Provide for
the inspection of clothing, punishment for those who are
careless or dirty in their clothes or persons, as far as a
few strokes (of the cat) by the midshipman
commanding, through the boatswains mate. If habitual
to be scrubbed in a tub by order of the division
lieutenant. The Articles of War and rules of discipline to
be read publicly once in every month.
The captains book contained, in all, 40 orders. It
provided a cleaning bill and set punishments for
swearing, drunkenness, and overstaying leave. It gave
regulations for the use of ships boats, and outlined ship
and gun drills.
Middleton believed the division system of
discipline to be the best way to keep large bodies of men
in order. This idea was quickly shared and furthered by
Admirals Richard Howe and Richard Kempenfelt,
ardent workers for improvement of signal and battle
tactics. Their orders enlarged upon the basic principles
of Middletons disciplinary code. They provided for
routines such as morning and evening musters. They
also provided daily reviews of their men by division
lieutenants as well as a weekly inspection of all hands
by the captain. They argued, and rightly so, that
individual divisions would catch the spirit of
competition and rivalry for appearance and performance
Organization is the element of administration by
which the orderly arrangement of materials and
personnel, by function, attains the objectives of the unit.
Organization shows the working relationship among
unit personnel along with task priorities and teamwork.