Once you determine the real and the ideal,
look at the discrepancies between them. Notice
the problems that interrupt the smooth operation
and productivity of some tasks. After finding the
size of the gap between the real and ideal, decide
whether you need to make changes to reduce the
gap. Any changes should meet four criteria:
Be behaviorally specific: Specify what
action to take
Be measurable: Specify criteria or check-
points for rating accomplishment of the
Be realistic but challenging: Test your
ability but have at least a 50 percent chance
Be time-phased: Show a time schedule or
deadline- for reaching the goal
Action planning involves four steps:
Taking action steps
Defining who will be taking the action
Creating a time schedule with dead-
Listing skills needed
attain the goal
to accomplish and
Equal opportunity is the practice of fair
personnel management and development. It
allows individual achievement, limited only by a
persons aspirations, abilities, and talents. It
provides for equal consideration and treatment
within the laws based upon a persons merit,
fitness, and capability, without additional
influence of race, color, religion, gender, or
Navy personnel at all levels in the chain of
command are responsible for carrying out equal
opportunity. Navy policy directs that all military
members and civilian employees will receive equal
opportunity and treatment.
You must support equal opportunity in all of
your day-to-day supervisory practices and
routines. That includes the areas of justice and
discipline, training and advancement, duty assign-
ments, communications, awards and recognition,
and evaluations and promotions.
You support equal opportunity when using the
five leadership skill groups.
Through extensive research, the U.S. Navy
identified a total of 16 leadership skills of superior
performers. It then grouped these 16 skills under
the following 5 basic areas of competence required
of Navy leaders. To become an effective leader,
you must recognize, understand, practice, and
evaluate yourself based on the skills in each of
these skill groups:
Concern for efficiency and effectiveness
Advising and counseling
Applying concepts to job situations
Concern for Efficiency and
You show concern for efficiency and ef-
fectiveness by performing a task in the least
wasteful manner (efficiency) to produce the
intended results (effectiveness). Superior
performers use this skill group more often, in
more situations, and with better results, than do
When you use the concern for efficiency and
effectiveness skill group, learn to use the following
1. Set goals and performance standards.
2. Take initiative.
Both of these skills affect your performance as
an effective leader.
SET GOALS AND PERFORMANCE STAN-
DARDS. Set goals and performance standards
by taking the following steps:
Establish specific work goals.
Express concern for standards of task
Revise goals to make them realistic.
Set deadlines for task accomplishments.