step. To be effective, plan the demonstration in
advance so that you will be sure to show the steps
in the proper sequence and to include all steps.
If you must give the demonstration before a
large group or if the trainees might have trouble
seeing because of the size of the equipment
involved, use enlarged devices or training aids.
When practical, allow trainees to repeat the
procedure in a hands on practice session to
reinforce the learning process. By immediately
correcting the trainees mistakes and reinforcing
proper procedures, you can help them learn the
task more quickly. The direct demonstration
approach is a very effective method of instruction,
especially when trainees have the opportunity to
repeat the procedures.
Techniques Used in the
The basic method of instruction for teaching
skill-type subject matter is the demonstration-
performance method of instruction. This method
is recommended for teaching a skill because it
covers all the necessary steps in an effective
The demonstration step gives trainees the
opportunity to see and hear the details related to
the skill being taught. Those details include the
necessary background knowledge, the steps or
procedure, the nomenclature, and the safety
precautions. The repetition step helps the average
and slow learners and gives the trainees an
additional opportunity to see and hear the skill
being taught. The performance step gives all
trainees the opportunity to become proficient. In
short, this method is recommended because it
leaves nothing to chance.
For convenience, we discuss the techniques for
imparting skills in steps, rather than activities.
When setting up an instructional plan, understand
that, you dont have to follow these steps in the
sequence given below; instead choose the steps in
the sequence best suited to the needs of the
trainees. Although you will always include a
demonstration step and a performance step, you
must use judgment in selecting techniques to make
the various steps effective.
DEMONSTRATION STEP. Every Navy
skill, mental or physical, has a body of
background knowledge the trainees must know
to perform the skill properly. You can best teach
some kinds of background knowledge in a
standard classroom with adequate, comfortable
seating and the display of training aids. You will
present other kinds of knowledge in ships or
laboratories in conjunction with actual
Develop proper attitudes while teaching the
skill. Developing the desire to do a perfect job,
the desire to exercise economy of time and effort,
and the desire to protect the lives of others are
all important attitudes.
Use a variety of techniques in presenting
background knowledge and in developing proper
attitudes. The following techniques relate more
to the actual demonstration:
1. Position the trainees and training aids
properly. If you direct trainees to gather around
a worktable or a training aid, make sure every
trainee has an unobstructed view.
2. Show and explain each operation. Perform
each operation in step-by-step order. Whenever
possible, give the instructions while you
demonstrate. Do not hurry; dont emphasize
speed in performing operations or in moving from
one operation to another during the demonstra-
tion step. Make certain the trainees understand
the first step before you proceed to the second
step, and so on. Repeat difficult operations. Pause
briefly after each operation to observe trainee
reactions and to check trainee comprehension.
In certain skills a distinction between right and
left is important; for example, the manual of arms
or knot tying. When teaching the manual of arms,
or skills of a similar nature, use an assistant
instructor or a well-coached trainee to demon-
strate the skill while you give instructions. This
method of instruction allows you to observe the
reaction of the trainees.
3. Observe safety precautions. By observing
safety precautions, you may take a few more
seconds to rig a safety line, don a safety mask,
or tag an electric cable; but the time is not wasted.
You are impressing the trainees with the impor-
tance of exercising extreme care in dealing with
potentially dangerous equipment.
4. Give proper attention to terminology. Call
each part of a training aid by its proper name each
time you call attention to it. For trainees to
remember the correct nomenclature, however,
requires more than your use of the proper names