Tomahawk is a highly survivable weapon
against predicted hostile defense systems. Radar
detection is difficult because the missile has a very
small cross section and flies at low altitude.
Similarly, infrared detection is difficult because
the turbofan engine emits a low level of heat. The
antiship variant of Tomahawk uses a combined
search radar and passive detection of enemy
electronic radiation to detect a hostile ship at great
READINESS TRAINING IN THE
Readiness is defined as the ability of a force,
a unit, a weapons system, or an equipment to
deliver the output for which it was designed.
Readiness includes the ability to deploy and
employ without unacceptable delays.
To meet the sea power challenge, the U.S.
Navy continually conducts readiness training. This
readiness training includes refresher training,
routine drills, exercises, and inspections.
REFRESHER TRAINING is designed to turn
a materially ready and manned ship into a ship
that is fully capable of performing its assigned
mission. The Navy operates two refresher training
groups, one on each coast of the United States.
The Atlantic group is located at Guantanamo Bay,
Cuba; the Pacific group is located at San Diego,
California. Refresher training consists of
inspections, exercises, drills, and battle problems.
These are designed to test every capability of the
ship. Refresher training normally takes about 5
weeks to complete under the watchful eye of a
refresher training group. A ship must repeat all
exercises failed during this period until it receives
a passing grade. Upon completion of refresher
training, the ship is ready for deployment.
After refresher training the ship must hold
frequent drills to keep the crew in top shape.
These may be of the operational, emergency,
administrative, or special type. Ships base all drills
on the ships bills and the basic bills outlined in
Standard Organization and Regulations of the
U.S. Navy, OPNAVINST 3120.32B. Ships hold
routine drills to ensure qualified personnel are
assigned, bills are correct, and all equipment is
on hand and in working condition. Drills may
seem repetitive, but this repetitiveness produces
a set of automatic responses by crew members that
prepares them for any event. General quarters is
the most important drill held. A general quarters
drill covers various bills that provide for exercise
of the entire crew. It allows for damage-control,
gun-crew, missile-firing, and medical-team drills
all at once. Other frequently held drills are
collision, man overboard, abandon ship, and
rescue and assistance. Through routine drills each
person in the crew
the most stressful
will be able to perform under
To ensure ships and crews are prepared to
meet operational commitments, higher authority
holds several formal inspections. These
inspections ensure the ship is safe to operate and
administrative procedures are correct. They also
ensure the ship is prepared to operate in wartime
conditions and in battle. We will briefly cover four
of the most important inspections conducted.
One of the most important inspections ships
receive is the OPERATIONAL READINESS IN-
SPECTION (ORI). Unit commanders normally
perform these inspections while the ship is
underway with the crew at battle stations or with
condition watches set. Type commanders place
heavy emphasis on the ORI. This inspection tests
the ability of the crew and ship to operate in battle
under wartime conditions. The most important
exercise is a lengthy and realistic battle problem
with the crew at general quarters. Normally the
ship will fire actual weapons during the exercise.
Defense against all forms of attack will be tested
along with damage-control, collision, and
Propulsion Examination Board
The PROPULSION EXAMINATION BOARD
(PEB) INSPECTION is conducted to ensure the
propulsion system is safe to operate. It also
determines the adequacy of the administrative and
operating procedures directly related to the
propulsion plant and the capability of assigned
personnel to maintain equipment and systems.