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FLOODING  CONTROL

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have all necessary postfire equipment at the scene by the time the fire is out. This equipment should include axes, rakes, cutting torches, an oxygen analyzer, an explosimeter. You should set the reflash watch with a charged hose manned and ready to extinguish any flare-up of the fire; test the compartment for explosive gases and oxygen content, in that order; overhaul the fire, breaking up any areas where danger of smoldering embers exists; retest the compartment for explosive gases; and then desmoke and retest again. FLOODING CONTROL One of the most important damage control measures is to control flooding. Drainage by fixed systems or portable pumps is ineffective in handling flooding caused by damage until the rate of flooding has been controlled. The entire pumping capacity of the drainage systems is sufficient to care for flooding only when the leaks are small. A hole in the hull, with an area of only 1 square foot, 15 feet below the surface, will admit water at 13,900 gallons per minute (gpm). The total pumping capacity of the fixed drainage systems in a large combatant ship, for example, is only 12,200 gpm. All pumping facilities cannot be used on any single flooded compartment. Therefore, it is essential that you isolate compartments flooded by underwater damage by watertight subdivisions before dewatering efforts can be successful. Basically, two methods can be used in the control of flooding: (1) restrict or entirely stop the flow of water entering the hull and (2) confine and remove water that has entered or is still entering the ship. Preparatory Measures to Resist Flooding Before Damage It has been wisely said that 90 percent of the work of damage control—the important part- is accomplished before damage and only about 10 percent after the ship has been hit. Most preparatory work consists of measures taken to toughen the ship to resist flooding. An important first step is for all personnel concerned with damage control to learn what features have been designed into their ship to enable it to resist flooding. The most significant of these features is the extent and type of vessel subdivision. The subdivision of the vessel will determine the extent and type of flooding that can occur and the type of corrective measures needed after damage. The DCA, repair party officers, and repair party leaders should also know the extent to which bulkheads adjacent to damage can be submerged before uncontrolled flooding arises. To combat flooding successfully, you need speed and accuracy. To be effective in applying corrective measures, damage control personnel should be familiar with the equipment provided to control list and trim and to improve stability. All hands should learn the general effects of a torpedo hit or other underwater damage to their ship. Since a single hit may wipe out entire repair parties or possibly carry away the damage control central station, ships may have to depend on other than repair parties to confine the flooding, to fight fire, and so forth. More important, vessels have been lost because personnel escaping from damaged areas left doors and hatches open behind them, thus permitting rapid spread of loose water. All hands should be trained to confine flooding by securing doors and hatches, lest stability efforts be too little or too late. Certain material preparations are vital in toughening the ship to resist flooding. They include maintaining watertight integrity of the ship’s  subdivision, properly classifying closures and fittings, properly setting material conditions of closure, and providing adequate and well-distributed operable damage control equipment. Types of Flooding There are two major types of flooding: solid and partial. SOLID. — If your ship has received severe underwater damage, compartments will be badly ruptured and completely flooded. Little or nothing can be done to correct this damage. Isolate the compartments to permit concentration 7-13



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