relations and internal processes. This cultural
change in management practices has certain basic
Management must clearly state the
organizations mission. It must state the
mission clearly and make it available to all
employees, suppliers, and customers. A
clear, public-mission statement prevents
individuals from generating their own
definitions of work priorities.
Managers and supervisors must ensure
their actions clearly support the organiza-
tions mission. This support includes
setting priorities and assigning tasks.
Management must focus its efforts toward
a common goal. This focus is an important
part of team building.
Management must make a long-term
commitment to quality improvement. In-
dividual managers must set an example by
providing consistent, focused leadership.
Quality management achieves results by
focusing on the procedures and processes that get
the work done. Under TQM, management must
strive continuously to improve the work process.
The primary emphasis of this effort is the
prevention of defects through quality improve-
ment rather than quality inspections. Quality
cannot be inspected; it must be managed from the
beginning. Conforming to established specifica-
tions is only part of quality improvement.
Management must not be satisfied with minimum
standards. As standards are met, we, as managers,
must look for new ways to improve our product.
Find the means to further tighten standards and
improve quality. Thats your job.
Another aspect of the TQM concept is the
necessary relationship between customer and
supplier. No matter what your job, it probably
involves a customer-supplier relationship. The
Intermediate Maintenance Department of a
command is a customer of and supplier to the
Supply Department. Aircraft squadrons and
supply departments have the same dual roles. At
one point, a supply department must establish a
working arrangement with a squadron that clearly
defines each departments needs and realistic
expectations. A career counselor must ensure
customers needs are met. On the other hand,
customers must have a realistic understanding of
the service the career counselor can render. This
mutual understanding of needs and capabilities
is needed to achieve customer satisfaction.
Leadership and TQM
The essential ingredient of TQM success is
leadership involvement. Management controls the
process that accomplishes the mission. Quality,
however, is in the hands of the workers who do
the job. Management, therefore, has the respon-
sibility to drive out the natural fear of change and
innovation that is part of most peoples basic
psychology. TQM must be supported from the top
down. That doesnt mean the department head
level. TQM must start with SECNAV/CNO-level
support and be supported and carried out all the
way to the bottom of the chain of command.
From admiral to deck seaman, TQM requires a
Effective management involves the use of
planning, staffing, controlling, organizing, and
leading. Planning is the use of strategic plans,
standing plans, and single-use plans. Effective
planning requires you to determine work require-
ments; set priorities; and use the strengths,
weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT)
Staffing is a means by which you match the
correct person to the job for optimum perform-
ance. You should continually evaluate your
personnel needs and make sure documentation is
updated when subordinates complete personnel
You use control to monitor your division or
work center. Types of control include feed-
forward, concurrent, and feedback. Control also
includes inventory control and quality control.
Types of quality control include feedforward,
concurrent, feedback, statistical, quality circle and
zero defects. Methods of control include the plan
of action and milestones, Gantt chart, program
evaluation and review technique (PERT), and
critical path method (CPM). Elements of effective
control are activities, timeliness, effectiveness,
accuracy, and acceptance.
TQM Focus on Process