communications and to watch to see that you are not
Symptoms of bad air include the following:
Excessive fatigue from slight exertion
If you feel any of these symptoms, warn others and
get to fresh air immediately.
A more dangerous situation occurs if there is very
little or no oxygen in a compartment. In this case, a
person can lose consciousness almost immediately and
without warning. If this happens and youre tending the
person, dont enter the space without wearing an
oxygen breathing apparatus (OBA). If you do, youll
become a casualty yourself. Always summon (call for)
help before making a rescue attempt.
Another hazard of working in closed compartments
or connected spaces is the use of internal combustion
engines in these spaces. For example, if a P-100 pump
for fire fighting or dewatering is used in a closed
compartment, the engine used to drive the pump takes in
the air through the carburetor and exhausts poisonous
carbon monoxide. If you need to use an internal
combustion engine in a closed space, make sure the
exhaust is carried (vented) to the open atmosphere.
REVIEW 5 QUESTIONS
Q1. Where do most accidents involving steam occur?
Q2. Describe the reason why you should never enter
a closed space until its certified by the gas free
Q3. List the symptoms caused by bad air.
Rules for preventing fuel fires were presented in
chapter 13 of this manual. Our discussion here will
include fire hazards and toxic hazards of flammable
materials and applicable safety precautions.
The vapors of petroleum products cause anesthetic
effects when inhaled. Breathing air where petroleum
vapors have a concentration of only 0.1 percent by
volume can result in the inability to walk straight after
o n l y 4 m i n u t e s . L o n g e r ex p o s u r e o r g r e a t e r
concentration may cause unconsciousness or death.
When lead is added to the fuel, toxicity is increased. The
lead may be inhaled or it may be absorbed through the
skin. Proper ventilation, therefore, must be provided at
all times when personnel are working in fuel tanks. An
air-line respirator is recommended when personnel
enter such spaces.
Symptoms of exposure to toxic vapors are
headache, nausea, and dizziness. If you are working in a
space that formerly held oil, gasoline, or other fuels and
you experience these symptoms, get to fresh air at once.
Recovery is usually prompt in fresh air; but if you are
overcome by the vapors, you may require immediate
medical attention. First-aid measures are to prevent the
victim from becoming chilled and to administer
artificial ventilation if breathing has stopped.
All fuel spills must be wiped up immediately to
prevent the spread of vapors to a possible ignition
source. Never use gasoline for cleaning purposes, and
avoid getting gasoline on the skin. Repeated contact
causes drying, chapping, and cracking and may cause