b. Shortness of breath: If the victim has a chest
injury or breathing difficulties, place the victim
in a sitting or semisitting position.
c. Shock: If the victim is in shock, place the
victim on his or her back with the head slightly
lower than the feet. (Shock is explained later in
2. Move the victim no more than is absolutely
necessary. To determine the extent of the victims
injuries, carefully rip or cut the clothing along the
seams. Removal of clothing in the normal way may
make injuries worse, especially if fracture injuries are
involved. Shoes may also be cut off to avoid causing
pain or increasing an injury. When the clothing is
removed, make sure the victim does not become
3. Keep the victim reassured and as comfortable as
possible. If possible, dont let the victim see his or her
injuries. The victim can endure pain and discomfort
better if he or she is confident of your abilities.
4. Dont touch open wounds or burns with fingers
or other objects except when sterile compresses or
bandages arent available and its absolutely necessary
to stop severe bleeding.
5. Dont try to give an unconscious person any
solid or liquid substance by mouth. The person may
vomit and get some of the material into the lungs
when he or she breathes, causing choking and
6. If a bone is broken or you suspect that one is
broken, dont move the victim until you have
immobilized the injured part. That may prove lifesaving
in cases of severe bone fractures or spinal cord injuries,
for the jagged bone may sever nerves and blood vessels,
damage tissues, and increase shock. Of course, threat of
fire, necessity to abandon ship, or other similar
situations may require that you move the victim. But
always keep in mind the principle that moving the
victim could do further damage; always weigh the risk
of moving the victim against other factors.
7. When transporting an injured person, always
see that the litter is carried feet forward no matter what
the injuries are. Carrying the litter this way lets the rear
bearer observe the victim for any respiratory
obstruction or stoppage of breathing.
8. Ke e p t h e i n j u r e d p e r s o n c o m f o r t a b l y
warmwarm enough to maintain normal body
Very serious and mutilating injuries may require
heroic first-aid measures on your part. However, the
greater the number of injuries, the more judgment and
self-control you must exhibit to prevent yourself and
well-intentioned bystanders from trying to do too much.
REVIEW 1 QUESTIONS
Q1. Describe the primary purpose of first aid.
Q2. List the primary tasks when administering first
Q3. Describe the general first-aid rule for the
b. Broken bones
c. Transporting injured personnel
Learning Objective: When you finish this chapter, you
will be able to
Recall the procedures used to administer